376 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. conduct. Thanks to Dutch protection, the barren, island became a thriving emporium and the population of one hundred poverty-stricken fishermen expanded into a pros- perous town of twelve thousand inhabitants. The Dutch held Kharak for some years until it was taken from them by a notorious pirate, Mir Mohanna of Bandar Rig, after which its prosperity and its population alike disappeared, The Foundation of the English Factory at Bushire^ A.D. 1763.—The Afghan invasion and the period of confusion that followed were responsible for the closing of most of the European factories in Persia, and some of them were not reopened. The British factory at Bandar Abbas was closed in 1761 owing to the extortions of the Governor of Lar, and in 1763 Bushire, the port of Shiraz, was selected as a new centre for commercial activity. Karim Khan was anxious to foster this British trade, and his farman^ of which I give a copy,1 was highly favourable in its terms. In 1770 Bushire was relinquished in favour of Basra, but three years later it was reoccupied, the factory at Basra being retained with it. Since that date Bushire has been the chief centre of British activity in the Persian 1 Royal Grant from Karim Khan, King of Persia, conferring various Privileges on the English, and granting Permission to them to establish a Factory at Bushire, and to Trade in the Persian Gulf. Schyrash, 2nd July, 1763. TABLE OF CONTENTS Art. i. "The English Company may have as much ground, and in any part of Bushire, as they choose to build a factory on, or at any other port in the Gulf. They may have as many cannon mounted on it as they choose, but not to be larger than 6 pounds bore 5 and they may build factory-houses in any part of the kingdom they choose." (2) No Customs' Dues to be Levied on Goods Imported or Exported at Bushire or elsewhere, (3) No other European nation to Import Woollen Goods. (4) Payment of Debts due to English Merchants and others. (5) Right of English to Buy and Sell Goods. (6) Prohibition against Clandestine Trade. (7) Wrecks. (8) Religious Liberty. . (9) Surrender of Deserters. (10) Exemption of Brokers, Servants, and others belonging to Factories from Payment of Taxes or Imposts. (n) "Wherever the English are, they shall have a spot of ground allotted them for a Burying Ground ; arid if they want a spot for a Garden, if the King's property, it shall be given them gratis j if belonging to any private person, they must pay a reasonable price for it." (12) "The House that formerly belonged to the English Company at Schyrash I now re-deliver to them, with the garden and water thereto belonging." Quoted from Hertslefs Treaties, p. II.